# Learning Mathematics

Introduction

The new Arabic Braille code covers literal textual content (non-technical) as well as specialized technical content.

In this series of short lessons, we will learn how to use the new Arabic Braille in writing some specialized technical materials with a focus on mathematics.

Note: The phrase “New Arabic Braille” means the verbatim braille Grade 1 and 2, which was developed and included in the Liblouis Software Library with the support of Mada Center – Qatar.

The series will start with simple signs and math operations, then, gradually move to advanced levels and operations. Therefore, we recommend that these series be studied in order. This series was developed for the benefit of both blind and sighted people.

Notes about the New Arabic Braille

The New Arabic Braille project has adopted the same idea on which the Unified English Braille (UEB) Project was based, which is that each sign has its independent dots, whether the context is literal or technical. Therefore, the technical materials specialized in the new braille system have the same rules and the same symbols used for the non-technical content.

In most cases, when using the new Arabic script on the braille display, the same rules of typing in regular font are used with regard to the spaces before or after the signs. Therefore, you must observe the consistency in the spaces when writing mathematical signs while using braille so the text can be prepared for reading and printing in normal font.

A single sign of braille may have a meaning in braille grade 1 (without the abbreviations) and another meaning in braille grade 2 (with abbreviations), and some signs can refer to either numbers or letters. Therefore, the position of the sign in relation to other signs, and the type of the table used, is what determines whether the sign is to be interpreted and read as an abbreviation, number, or letter.

These tutorials are based mainly on the braille grade 1 table. However, you will be able to write numbers and simple math operations using the braille grade 2 table (with abbreviations). Although it is recommended to use the braille grade 1 table when entering or reading mathematical content, as the braille grade 2 grade does not provide support for all mathematical signs.